Research Paper On Morphine

Morphine is obtained from the poppy plant; it is an unriped seed capsule of poppy plant. Morphine is commonly used as painkiller and it is an potent analgesic drug. Pharmacologically morphine is used naturally pain killer drug. Morphine is potentially highly addictive chemical and can cause intense physical dependence that leads to miss-use of the substance. Frequently use of morphine can lead to individuals developing tolerance of the drug and a physical and psychological dependence on it.

Related Journals of Morphine Addiction

Journal of Alcoholism & Drug Dependence, Journal of Drug Metabolism & Toxicology International, International Journal of School and Cognitive Psychology, Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy, Journal of School and Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Drug Investigation, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems, Journal of Groups in Addiction and Recovery, Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, Drug Information Journal, Progress in Drug Research, Drug and Chemical Toxicology.

Morphine Addiction

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Martinez 2

interacts with the neurons in the brain/spinal cord that are responsible for the perception of pain to reduce the perception one feels when exposed to a pain-inducing stimulus (Busse 23). The numerous routes of administration of morphine include oral, sublingual (pill under the tongue), rectal, inhalation, intramuscular injection, subcutaneous injection (injection under the outer layer of skin),and intravenous injection (injection into a vein). Each route carries its own benefits and disadvantages, but the most common administration of morphine is an intravenous injection (Busse 24). Once it is successfully administered into the body, morphine affects neurons with opioid receptors and also acts as an opioid agonist, meaning it mimics the effects of the neurons in opioid peptides (Busse 49). Once the opioid receptors, including the mu, kappa and delta receptors, are activated, the neurons release neurotransmitters that prevent communication between other neurons. The result of this inhibition is the alteration of the sensation and perception of pain, increases in euphoric activity and one’s sense of aversion (a strong dislike or disinclination), and “the development and maintenance of addictive behaviors,” (Busse 40). Morphine also causes drowsiness, constipation and a declined rate in respiration. An overdose of morphine can cause severe respiratory depression, a coma, or even death (Drug Guide 4). Morphine affects the body’s drug metabolism rate in the sense that the body becomes more efficient at breaking down morphine the more it is ingested. This increased metabolism rate results in the user requiring increasing amounts of morphine to experience the same effects (known as a drug tolerance), which results in the development of physical and psychological dependence (Busse 31-32, Infoplease 2). Once dependent upon the drug, morphine addicts experience withdrawal symptoms, such as nausea, tearing, yawning, chills, and

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